Cultivation of seedlings at home
For many gardeners, the season begins long before the 1st trip to the cottage. In order to harvest early, most of the owners of household plots grow seedlings at home, and then plan her in an open ground. This allows young and weak sponsors of vegetable crops to gain strength and strengthen in softer and comfortable conditions, rather than open soil, as a result of which summer houses have increased germination of plants, as well as early and rich harvest.
The cultivation of seedlings is the responsible stage, at this time there is a future harvest, because it is so important to sow seeds and create good conditions for plants.
In the average climatic strip of Russia, the seedlings are grown in order to obtain an earlier harvest from vegetable crops with a long period of vegetation. In more southern regions, weather and climatic conditions allow you to search for seeds immediately into the ground.
What can be grown by a seedler
Plants that are grown through seedlings are mostly thermal-loving (except, except, white and cauliflower, which easily transfers small frosts). This parameter is to take into account, planning the time of sowing, because later the characteristics of the vegetable culture will depend on the time of landing of seedlings into the ground.
Note! Some varieties of vegetable crops, derived by breeders specifically for the northern regions, are able to carry low temperatures, so they are planted in an open soil or greenhouse before other representatives of the species.
For example, peppers and eggplants are thermal-loving vegetables, which means to plant them in the ground (even in a greenhouse) can after the threat of return freezers.
To obtain an early crop through seedlings, all kinds of cabbage are grown. You can grow seedlings and rootfields - beets, radish and dycon. A seedlings are grown by two-year and perennial plants to achieve flowering or fruiting in one year. The cold-resistant plants grown by a seedliness include bowknushka and leeks, celery, Pasternak. Also on seedlings sow some spicy herbs - Basil, Melissa, Chabret and Oils.
Garden strawberries from seeds are also growing with a seaside way, and they sow it at the beginning of winter. By the summer, developed bushes are obtained, which quickly come out and manage to even give the first berries. Flowers with a long term development is also better to plant a sediment - so they will bloom at the beginning of summer.
Dates of planting garden crops on seedlings
All plants grown by a seedliness, seed seed and seedling seedings are different. They depend on the growing season and the optimal conditions for the development of plants. So, in the middle lane, the cold-resistant cabbage can be planted in the ground in early May, and with thermal-loving peppers, tomatoes, melons and watermelons will be better in time until June.
Helpful advice! You never need to rush sow seeds only because the neighbors and acquaintances have already done it! After all, all different conditions (illumination, soil, temperature), and varieties may differ from yours. It is necessary to focus on your duration of landing (to a greenhouse or a garden) - the age of seedlings should be 50-60 days from the moment of seedlings.
Note! When landing seed, it is important not to be late, otherwise the seedlings will not have time to grow and develop, and the period of fruiting will come later than usual. At the same time, it is not necessary to hurry with the landings too - the glowing seedlings are worse, sick and can even die.
For active growth, seedlings need good illumination, to provide which in winter it is impossible without additional highlightening. This leads to an increase in spending, but they are meaningless: seedlings of seeds planted in their time will quickly catch up and run out earlier fit, it will be stronger and laid more fruit points.
Dates of planting seeds of different cultures for seedlings, landing in a greenhouse and open ground.
|Culture||Terms of sowing seeds||Landing in greenhouse||Landing in open ground|
|Eggplant||February 10 - March 15||May 25 May 25||June 5.|
|Peppers||March 1-20||May 1-25||May 20 - June 5|
|Tomatoes Early||March 10-20||May 1-25||May 15 - June 5|
|Ored-air tomatoes and late||March 1-15||May 1-25||May 15 - June 5|
|Cucumbers||April 15 - May 5||15-31 May||May 25 - June 10|
|Zucchini, Patchsons||April 15 - May 5||–||20-31 May|
|Pumpkin||April 10-25||–||20-31 May|
|Melon||April 5-15||15-31 May||May 25 - June 5|
|Watermelon||April 10-20.||15-31 May||May 25 - June 5|
|Early cabbage used||March 25 - April 5||–||15-31 May|
|Cabbage Middle and Late Welcome B / K and K / K||April 5-25||–||15-31 May|
|Cabbage Color, Broccoli, Brussels, Kohlrabi||April 5-25||–||15-31 May|
|Strawberry||February 1 - April 30||–||July 1 - August 31|
|Celery, Pasternak||February 5-25.||–||April 25 - May 15|
|Leek and Bow Chernushka||March 1-31||–||April 25 - May 15|
|Potatoes||April 1-10||–||May 10-25|
|Flowers: Petunia, Lobelia, Salvia, Carnation||February 10 - March 10||–||from May 10.|
|Flowers: Amaranth, Astra, Easy tobacco, left||March 1 - April 10||–||from May 20|
|Flowers: Velhets, Qinny, dahlia, fragrant peas||April 10-20.||–||from May 20|
Depending on the climatic conditions inherent in your region, the seed seeding time changes. The table below shows the averaged data on terms favorable for sowing vegetable crops.
|Name of vegetable culture||Southern regions||Central Black Earth Region||Medium strip||Ural and Siberia||Far East|
|Eggplant||February 5-10||February 10 - March 15||March 21-31||April 5-10||February 25 - March 10|
|Cook||May 1-10||April 25 - May 15||May 10-15||May 10-20||May 15 - June 10|
|White cabbage||February 10-15 (Early), March 20-25 (average)||March 1-15 (Early), March 25 - April 15 (Late)||March 15-25 (Early), April 25-30 (average)||March 5-10 (Early), April 25-30 (average)||March 10-15 (Early), March 20 - April 20 (average)|
|Cucumber||April 10-15||April 5-30||May 1-10||April 25-30||April 1-15|
|Pepper||February 5-10||February 10 - March 15||March 11-20||March 10-20||March 1-15|
|Tomato||February 25 - March 5 (Early), March 1 - 10 (Middle)||March 10-25 (Early), March 10-25 (Middle)||March 10 - April 15 (Early), March 11 - 20 (Middle and Late)||April 1-5 (Early), March 10-22 (Middle and Late)||March 1-25 (Early), March 20-30 (Middle and Late)|
The dates in the table are approximate and not strict, for a more accurate calculation of the seeding time of vegetables, we offer to try the countdown method, which we will describe below.
What is important to consider?
To get the first harvest of vegetables to a certain time, it is necessary to correctly calculate the deadlines in which the seeds need to be seeded. To do this, you will need information:
- On the duration of the growing season of vegetable crops;
- about the time required to germinate seeds (appearance of germs).
If you consider these variables, then calculate the seed seeds for seedlings will not be at all difficult. Now let's stop at each factor and consider it in more detail.
Time from the emergence of shoots to harvest is called the growing season. The duration of this period in plants varies, moreover, it can be different and for varieties of one species - from here the division of varieties for early, middle-air and late.
Early varieties need much less time for ripening than late and secondary. As a rule, in the middle strip of the plant with a longer growing seasonal period, they are grown by a seed basis so that they have time to give a crop.
Seed manufacturers usually indicate the packaging information about the duration of the growing season of culture. On average, the growing season lasts:
|Vegetable culture||The average duration of the growing season (days)|
This indicator depends on the set of circumstances: the conditions for storing seeds, biological features of vegetable culture, cultivation conditions, etc.
Seed germination time
Holding the time of sowing of certain crops, we often forget about the need to take into account the timing of seed germination. The time of the appearance of germs and the friendship of germination depend on the conditions for storing seeds, their pretreatment, the favorable conditions created for the cultivation of seedlings. The average numbers for this parameter are as follows:
|Vegetable culture||Seed germination time (days)|
Helpful advice! Use the seeds that you collected and stored yourself either buy seed material in specialized stores to protect yourself from scammers and be confident in a good crop.
How to calculate seedlings
The information provided in the tables above can be used to calculate the seeding period for seedlings. To do this, to the number indicating the duration of the growing season, add the number of days necessary for germination of seeds, and 5 days (approximately) to adapt the plant after disembarking in the ground. Then take the resulting number from the date you planned to collect a harvest.
For example, you want to get a yield of tomatoes by mid-July (take 20.07). On the package it is indicated that the vegetation period of the vegetation selected is 130 days: 130 + 7 + 5 = 142, it means to take 142 days from July 20. It turns out you need to sow the seeds of tomatoes at the seedlings on February 28. Of course, the dates are approximate, since a large number of factors affect the development of the plant.
Preparation for the cultivation of seedlings (necessary inventory).
Many novice daches are asked: What is better to grow seedlings? The most common and convenient container for this purpose is a wooden box. Some use cropped plastic bottles, as well as cardboard boxes from under dairy products.
Helpful advice! From litter bottles from under vegetable oil, excellent pots are obtained. To do this, cut off the bottom slightly below the middle of the bottle and turn 1 half the neck down, for water drain. In addition, in such a pot it is convenient to loosen the earth. For what you just need to squeeze the opposite walls.
Also for seedlings you can use dense packages of the same size, for example, from under milk. They are convenient because it is possible to roll the package when landing, and as seedlings grow to gradually roll it out and pour the soil. Such a reception is useful for plants that additional roots are allowed when gluing - for example, for tomatoes or colors.
To germinate the seeds is better under the film or glass - the effect of the greenhouse is created, the soil remains wet and warm, and the sprouts appear faster. Convenient for germinating mini-greenhouse seeds with removable transparent lids. The guy can be made independently of transparent disposable tanks. A mini-greenhouse for seedling before planting seeds and picking reusable seaside tanks must be rinsed with warm water with the household soap and rinse with clean water. When using wooden boxes, it is recommended to draw them disinfection with a solution of copper sulfate or chlorine lime.
Important! Before planting seeds and picking, reusable seaside containers need to be rinsed with warm water with a household soap and rinse with clean water. When using wooden boxes, it is recommended to draw them disinfection with a solution of copper sulfate or chlorine lime.
Of course, no one will argue with the fact that the apartment is not the best and not the most comfortable place for agriculture, even in such small scales. In addition, there are certain disadvantages:
- fewer sunlight;
- dry air;
- limited space.
However, they are all completely overcome.
If you put a jar filled with water, next to the battery, it is easy to saturate the air with additional moisture, so fit plants. And the lack of daylight should be compensated for by the electric lamp of the day lighting, which must be included after the sunset only 2-3 hours. The landing area can be expanded with special shelves that build one over the other on the windowsill. The most important thing is that they are easy to remove at the end of the process of growing seedlings.
Note! Choosing a plastic container for seedlings, several small holes for removing extra moisture should be done in its donkey. As for cardboard and wooden tanks, they do not need it.
Currently, specialized shops for gardeners offer a wide selection of dishs for seedlings made of peat mixture and humus, which is very convenient for further planting plants in the ground, but we will talk about it below.
Note! Since home conditions are still not the most suitable for cultivation of seedlings, then at home it is possible to grow all kinds of plants. Of course, any seeds will germinate, if they sow them into the ground, but not every culture will give full sprouts suitable in the future to land in the ground, but only strong and strong sprouts are able to give a good harvest.
Choosing for yourself those or other vegetable and herbal cultures and acquiring the necessary seeds, you can proceed to prepare them for landing. Having approved the place where the seedlings will be, it is necessary to prepare the necessary inventory. It includes:
- Wooden or plastic boxes;
- Pots or cups for seedlings;
- Pallets for the flow of excess moisture;
- air humidification devices (this can be both homemade and purchased in the device store);
- Electric daylight lamps for additional shower;
- Carefully selected mineral or organic fertilizers for feeding plants;
- As well as spacious watering tanks (tap water should first stand out).
Preparation of soil for growing seedlings at home
When all the preparatory activities are over, you can proceed to the preparation of the soil for seedlings. It is necessary to immediately make a reservation that the soil saturated with peat and humus, it is better to prepare in advance, i.e. in the fall. Of course, much depends on the culture itself, which will land in this soil. Nevertheless, it can be said that for many vegetable crops the following soil composition is optimal: 30% of the Earth, 30% humus or peat and 40% of sand. If you plan to grow cabbage, then for it you should take a larger amount of sand.
In addition, its high nutritional requirements, breathability, and the ability to absorb and hold moisture are mandatory. Such a mixture can be prepared independently or purchase ready-made in the store.
Note! It is not recommended to take the soil from the greenhouse - there are almost always disputes of fungal diseases that can destroy the whole seedlings immediately after the appearance of germs!
Several soil cooking recipes for growing seedlings
Books written in the last century are recommended to grow seedlings in compositions based on forest or turf and other now deficient materials. Nowadays, summer houses for the preparation of a seaside are most often used in the fall of vegetable garden land (soil with onion or cucumber beds) with various additives. Some of them will have to be signed in the store.
|View of the Earth||Main components||Proportions||Additives|
|Basic Middle Quality Soil||Surgery, humus, sawdust||2: 1: 1||Chimney ash - 3-5 tbsp. Spoons per 1 kg of mixture|
|Universal soil, suitable for most plants||Surgery, peat, humus, sawdust||2: 1: 1: 1||Dolomitic flour or lime - 0.5-1 Art. Spoon per 1 kg of mixture|
|For tomato seedlings||Horse peat, hardening or garden land, compost or humid, vermiculite, weathered sawdust||16: 4: 1: 2: 2||On the bucket of the mixture - 1.5 glasses of wood ash, 3 tbsp. Spoons of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. Spoon of potassium sulfate, 1 tsp of urea|
|For pepper seedlings||The same as for tomatoes||8: 4: 1: 1: 1||The same|
|For seedlings eggplant||Compost, peat, biohumus, sawdust||4: 2: 1: 1||On the bucket of the mixture - ¾ glasses of wood ash, 1.5 tbsp. Spoons of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. Spoon of potassium sulfate, 1 tsp of urea|
|For seedlings cabbage||Peat, nervous land, sand, perlite, dolomite flour||6: 2: 1: 1: 1||Grinding Ceramzit or Procherating Clay - 0.5% of the total soil|
The soil saturated with humus is better kept nutrients that fall into it with feeding. Compost, especially as the rotor, as well as the dung humus do not contain viable weed seeds and, in addition, are saturated with a microflora useable for soil, which suppresses pathogens of various diseases.
- Mixture: Take the 9 parts of the riding peat and 1 part of the cowboat.
- Mixture: Take 7 parts by humus, 2 pieces of turf land, 1 part of a cowboat.
- Mix: Take 1 part of the compost land, 2 pieces of humus, 1 part of river sand (on the bucket of the mixture you need to add 2 more glasses of sainted wood ash).
- Mix: Take 1 part of the turf of the land, 2 pieces of humus (on the bucket of the mixture it is necessary to add 1 cup of sainted wood ash).
- Mixture: Take 3 parts of the turf, 6 parts by humus, 1 part of the cowboat.
- Mixture: Take 5 parts of peat, 3 pieces of humus, 1 part of the turf, 1 part of the cowboat.
Some daches and vegetables are used to grow seedlings of cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins and sunflower, a mixture of wood sawdust and river sand, taken accordingly in proportion 3: 1. And sawdust before use, it is necessary to give boiling water before use.
One bucket of such a mixture should also add 30 g of lime, 15 g of nitroammofoski or to pour it with a cowbling solution in a 1: 10 ratio.
This is not a complete list of mixtures suitable for growing seedlings of vegetable crops at home.
So, if there is access to all these materials, it is easy to prepare a mixture yourself; If you have nowhere to get the necessary components, you can buy them in specialized stores. Now they offer a wide selection of such soils and each dacket can choose the most appropriate.
In order not to get confused in the diversity of soil mixtures for growing seedlings, many amateur dacms use 1 universal mixture that suits usually all major vegetable crops.
Good quality primer compulsory:
- loose, breathable;
- Well moistened and keeps moisture;
- does not contain weed seeds;
- processed from bacteria, viruses and mushrooms;
- Balanced by the content of macro and trace elements.
Most high-quality purchased soils for seedlings meet these requirements. They are processed by ferry and fungicides, after which they become sterile. To increase fertility, it is recommended to pour them with a solution of uh preparations before planting (Baikal Em-1, "Lace-EM" and analogues).
Nevertheless, it should always be remembered that when choosing a mixture in the store, you must carefully read the instructions, familiarize yourself with the composition of the mixture, as well as take into account all the manufacturer's recommendations for its use.
Helpful advice! Check the manufacture and shelf life, volume of packaging, composition, pH (should be about 7). To the touch, the contents must be homogeneous, without lumps or sticks.
An example of a successful purchase of soil for seedlings
On the store shelves you can see many different packages with the soil. And if you read the composition of the mixture, then there will be one of the four basic options:
- Neutralized peat. Suitable as a component for seedlings.
- Fertilizer-enriched neutralized peat option. It is suitable for short cultivation of seedlings - lettuce, basil, etc.
- A mixture of neutralized peat, biocomposition and baking powder. Universal soil, suitable for most floral and garden crops.
- Modifications of the version number (3) for different plants and the long content of seedlings (differ in the proportions of the main components and additives - fertilizers and biohumus).
Helpful advice! By purchasing the soil of the required composition, you should not immediately search for seeds in it, as it must be prepared for about a week before sowing. For which it is poured into the prepared boxes, tram and watered with a weak hot solution of manganese (pink color).
Peat pills for seedlings instead of land
Light peat peat pills of imported production in a mesh or nonwoven shell are deserved. "Clawing" allows the washers with the "live" plants on the general pallet (when landing it is removed). Budget pills-goals are often falling apart when moisturizing, so the pots have to look for them.
Before sowing the tablet, moisture drinks: they are placed in the tanks, poured 2-3 cm with warm (30 ° C) of water. The procedure is repeated two more times at intervals of 20-30 minutes.
During the operation of the washer, it is impossible to overwork, so the seating should be kept under a plastic cap or polyethylene film. Seedlings are recommended to moisturize from the sprayer, and in the tank regularly pour out the resistant or snow water to the desired (1-2 mm) level. To increase the moisture, there are moistened granules of the hydrogel or a handful of vermiculite.
Select in size
Tablets with a diameter of 25-40 mm: To root the cuttings of phlox, Surfinia, Saintpolia, as well as sowing small seeds.
Middle size washers (45-60 mm) are suitable for most garden crops.
In large peat pills, zonal pelargonium is well developed, cuttings of chrysanthemums, roses, room lemons are born.
Video: Soil preparation for seedlings
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I remember my first experience of growing seedlings, it was and exciting, and joyfully at the same time: a new fascinating hobby appeared - vegetable growing. In the very first year, there was a good seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, onions-row.
The article collected her observations as a novice, I hope it will be useful to read the novice dacnis.
Earth preparation for seedlings The preparation of land for seedling begins in the fall.
Do not be afraid to stock too much land, it does not happen much. If for seedlings, cook 10 vestors - you definitely do not lose. It is convenient to prepare the composition in the vendors, and for the carriage home to move into double dense tie packages. It is possible to store the land on an unheated balcony or loggia, Siberian frosts under - 40 thus displaced the soil, in the oven to warm the land in the oven.
Ingredients: Well-ripened humidage 2 parts (it is determined visual - black, as on the black mill, without remnants of non-inflexible plants), simple garden land 1 part (it is best to take from the beds where legumes or siturates grew). For peppers, you can take more humoring, even more for eggplants, they are the most demanding of the fertility of the Earth. Add a glass of wood ash and about 1 kg of pure sand on the bucket of the mixture. Instead of half a dose of ash, you can add superphosphate 25 g, if the ash is not at all, you can add 50 g of superphosphate instead of it. It is important to check whether there is no rainworms in the ground - they are useful only in the country, and in small capacles can spoil the gentle roots. Ideally, you can sift the Earth. Capture some pure sand, it will come in handy for sprinkling around the drooping stalks in case of transfusion of seedlings and the appearance of the first signs of the "Black leg" disease.
If you did not have time to prepare the soil mixture yourself, then the purchase of land and sand will also be suitable. I tried special compositions for each type of vegetables, and the universal soil - I liked everything.
The earth must be taken from the balcony for 5-7 days before the start of work so that it is well excited. When weeds began to germinate in the ground, it is considered ready for sowing. 4-5 days before the sowing date you need to decompose the land in the tanks and shed hot water with a manganese, the proportion of about 2 g per 10 liters of water.
Capacity for seedlings
Prepare the capacities of different sizes in advance. Peppers Many buy peat pots, but I read that the earth often dries in them. I use for a bow tale of the capacity with a height of 8-10 cm, for peppers with eggplants and tomatoes to the first diver - disposable 200 ml cups and 250 g plastic packaging from under sour cream. Transparent cups are better to make an opaque box, since plant roots are better to be in the dark. Experimented with the size of the containers and came to the conclusion that for peppers and eggplants are suitable as large - 7-8 cm in height, width, length and ordinary 200 ml cups; For tomatoes from the first dive to the second, 200 ml cups are suitable, and after the second picking, large containers are needed so that the roots are where to grow, for example, cropped 1 liters of milk tetrapaks. Eggplant It is very desirable to pierce the bottom of the capacities: can be seed, 2-3 punctures. Regarding the drainage: I tried to grow and without it, and with a ceramzite drainage, the difference did not notice. The sizes of containers for peppers, eggplants, tomatoes What else can come in handy for seedlings The opaque film is required for covering the boxes and the capacity to set down water, can be water. Specially measured the stiffness of our tap water - it turned out to be very hard, there are divorces on the surface of the earth. It was convenient turned out to be a pulverizer with a regulator into two positions - one trickle and spraying. We use old trays to not wear cups one by one on the loggia and back, and so that the plums from the cups happen to the pallets, and not on the windowsill. I was also useful to a room thermometer - it is difficult for a beginner to determine the air temperature on the windowsill, loggia, and for plants it is very important to observe the temperature regime. If the windows come out are not south, there will be a daylight lamp for backlight, and better several. If you intend to feed and not against mineral fertilizers, then you will need a mangartan, "ideal", superphosphate, urea, nitroposka, boric acid. For the preparation of the Bordeaux fluid for the prevention of phytoophulas at tomatoes: Copper vigorous, hawed lime or calcined soda (100 g of copper sulfate is dissolved in 1 liter of water, the volume of up to 5 liters is adjusted, in another capacity in 5 liters of water, 100 g of greased lime or calcined soda , slowly mix, pour the first solution into the second, not the opposite; storage is not subject to storage). How to decide on seed varieties The most reliable is to consider vegetable landings in experienced neighbors in the country, ask them about the features of varieties, as well as read the tips of the experienced dacities of your region. The image on the seed packaging is always beautiful, but you need to know how culture will behave in the conditions of the native land. Do not forget after excursions in neighboring sites to write the names of varieties. It is not one or two to choose to choose to choose, but several proven varieties - with a good germination, friendly maturation, resistant to a variety of diseases. Carefully read packaging with seeds. Pick up the secondary and early grades of peppers, eggplants and tomatoes to pamper themselves with their first fruits already at the end of July, and maybe before. If there are greenhouses, Country Azart and time - buy and late Led Tomatoes. Latest peppers and eggplants in Siberia do not have time to ripen, so if there is no heated greenhouse, then you should not risk. For myself, I wrote the following mostly praised varieties, but also bought for the sake of experiment and 1-2 grades of each culture simply like the label like. : Ed Knight (he is a red knight), BelaDonna (it is white lady), swallow, Atlant F1 (Prefix F1 means a hybrid, usually a high-yielding, which does not require preseed treatment, but subsequently seeds from hybrid fruits are not used to obtain their own), star East, Shanghai, Aristotle, California Miracle (True, the latter is small to germinate). These varieties are thick-walled.
: Epic F1, King of the North F1, King F1 Market, Mirabella, Black Handsome.
Tomatoes for salads and universal purposes : Bullie Heart (Looks like a swallow ears), Miracle of the Earth, Mazarini, Orange, Malachite Casket, De Barao, Scarlet Candles, Golden King. This is all greenhouse varieties. Tomatoes for salting : Intuition, Cascade, Nocturne, Kostroma, Soselka, Parsley Ogorodnik, Black Mavr, Red Giant, Labrador, Jury F1 (Bipop), Intrigue F1. Most are greenhouse. Long-storage tomato : Martha - for open soil. Tomatoes for open soil, early : Miracle of Light, Early 83, Golden Heart, Banana Red, Apple Tabs of Russia, Snowdrop, Red Cap, Spool, Buyan (Fighter). Leek : The most win-win variety - tango. Duration of sowing, the effect of the lunar calendar, folk signs The first, in mid-February, sow
Since they tight rose. Then
- They can be sown in the mid-end of February, and in the first decade of March. By the time of the start of fruiting, the height of the plants would still be approximately the same, I checked.
Peppers, sowned in mid-February, on the right, in mid-March - left.
Eggplants in early May, sowing in mid-February (in the middle among peppers). Eggplants in early May, sowing in mid-March. All eggplants and peppers in the greenhouse in July, height is the same. Seeds Tomatov Divide into three bugs: late interderminant (with unlimited growth) in the first days of March, the secondary-day - in the first decade of March or even in mid-March, i.e. 60-65 days before landing in a greenhouse, the early determinants (the height of these is limited to 40-70 cm, they do not grow above) for open soil - in early April, in 45 days landing in open ground, usually such tomatoes are planted after the last frosts, those. In the first days of June. For myself, I wrote the following mostly praised varieties, but also bought for the sake of experiment and 1-2 grades of each culture simply like the label like. If there is a desire to experiment with tomatoes and achieve a high barrel, which can then deepen into the ground when transplanting to a greenhouse and achieve a variety of processes from the trunk (there are such intensive methods), you can sow at the end of February, but be prepared for processing seedlings, difficulties When transporting high plants to the cottage. I tried to grow intense methods of the varieties of tomatoes dimensionless and golden rain, only the golden rain was successful, despite the fact that he was not a large-scale. But there was a lot of time on the garter and steaming in the greenhouse, as well as the trouble with illuminated and excitement due to the pallor of seedlings. Of course, if the Tomato's top broke, it is easy to revive, putting into the water for several days, the tomato barrel is easily powered by root, but this is all the extra care.
The stranded Tomato Tip will quickly give roots in the water.
Spend at the end of February, it will still not grow much and not so demanding to the light.
If you believe in the lunar calendar, the main rules are as follows: plants whose fruits ripen over the ground, sow on a growing moon, and ripening under the ground - to descending; On the full moon and the new moon, as well as 1-2 days after and to them, the earth and plants give rest.
But our grandmothers followed one simple rule: landings are made on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday. It was believed that the plants planted these days would be good, as the name of the weeks of the week - the nouns of the female family, called such days of the week "Women's Days".
It is also useful to look at the weather outside the window: if it is still cold and overcast, the blizzard means, the nature "feels bad", sow a wound, wait a couple of days.
Determination of the number of seedlings
Pay in advance how much can be placed on the windowsill cups and boxes with seedlings, maybe it will be necessary to make an additional "windowsill", under which you need another lamp for the backlight, substitute the table to the window. The racks are now popular, especially in flower flowers growing several hundred of the roots of beautiful flowers. For vegetables, the greenhouses will be needed in the country, especially in the conditions of Siberia, and after all, an unlimited number of roots do not go there, it is also necessary to take into account.
Prepaiming seed preparation
The seeds are soaked in the tissue bags in a pale-pink solution of manganese minutes by 15-20, removed, washed for 2-3 seconds in running water. It is possible to soak in the "ideal" solution for a day, or in the water obtained from the monstering pure snow, it is called "alive", but it is better to soak in a wet marlay that the seeds "breathe". Then it is useful to temper the seeds, putting them in the refrigerator at a temperature of + 2 + 4 degrees on the nights, it is possible and less (day should be removed and kept at room temperature). Do not forget to sign the varieties of seeds. There are also methods of heating seeds - on the battery, in the thermos, etc. But, I think it is complicated for a newcomer dachanka, you can forget to control, overlay seeds, "burn" them, sufficiently and the above-described preparation methods. Sowing seeds It is necessary to sow every grade of seeds into a separate container, as the varieties ride differently. The land is a little tamples, shed, wait for water to absorb, make the holes-deepening with a pencil, put the seeds, fall asleep with dry loose land from above to a height from 0.5 to 1.5 cm, depending on the size of the seed. The smaller the seeds, the less the height of the backfill, the golden rule of landings - the depth should be like a three-time width of the seed. Since I grow Peppers and eggplants Without a dive (this is a plants transplant in a more spacious tank with a root plug), like cultures with gentle roots, easily damaged when dive, then I sow 2 seeds in one cup, then I chose the least developed. Yes, and the germination of seeds is not 100%. .
Picking is needed, it gives an impetus for the development of lateral roots than them more, the better the power of the fruits. Also dive (more precisely, two divers) gives a small respite of tomatoes seedlings, it is not so pulled out as without dive. Therefore, tomatoes can be placed in the boxes - containers with a height of about 8-10 cm.
We do not forget to sign the immentable marker names of varieties on containers, you can code, so as not to write a full name of the variety on each cup; Mark the sowing date for subsequent control of shoots.
Marked cups with seedle pepper: Next, crops are closed with an opaque film, remove into a warm place, where the temperature is about 23-25 degrees for tomatoes, and for peppers and eggplants, it is possible and more than 25-28 degrees. You can make a difference from the sprayer if the land is dry. Mode on the sprayer - Spray (spraying). Do not water the jet, so you can inappropriate to move the seeds that began to germinate. After that, do not close the boxes immediately, let it be better to ventilate. It is possible to decompose on the pure snow unfolded on the rambled land, put it in a cold place, and when the snow becomes, pour out the ground with a layer of about 0.5 cm, cover with a film. Light for seedlings
- Before the appearance of shoots, you need to air landing for a few minutes once a day. Tomatoes boost quickly, on 3-5 days, as soon as notice the first shoots, they look like a plump loop - put on the windowsill, under the backlight. You can use a temporary relay, including a lamp in the morning from 7 h. To 8-9 hours, in the evening after sunset and up to hours 21-22, and in cloudy weather and more. With an increase in the daylight, in the first decade of March, the lamp can no longer be used. Also to increase the light, wash the window at least from the inside.
- Especially demanding to light tomatoes. I have only one daylight lamp, so first peppers and eggplants grow under it, then, closer to mid-March, I move them to the windowsill without backlight, they will no longer reach the light. And I just put the tomatoes on the window sill with a lamp, because tomatoes are sang, starting Martha at first.
- Light for peppers and eggplant
- Watering seedlings
Watering should be moderate as soon as the upper layer of land becomes dry, only warm water, in order to avoid diseases, about once a week. Ideally, it would be nice to water so that the water does not touch the plants. To do this, use a spray gun, put the spout to the Stream position (jet), direct the stream away from the plant stem, for example, on the walls of the cup.
- When overflow and turning the stalks carefully wrap the sand around the stem, as if "salting." Check if all the cups have a plum holes.
- If there is no possibility to water seedlings in a timely manner, use hydrogel, mixed with soil during landings.
- Temperature for seedlings
- The temperature for pepper should be in the afternoon about + 16-18 degrees in the first week after germination, for eggplants + 17-20 degrees. At night - up to +10 degrees. Next, the temperature can be enhanced: day - to room temperature, and at night to + 15-18 degrees.
- After the appearance of germs in the form of "loops" can be transferred to the windowsill, gradually removing the film, and as soon as you see the seedy leaves - we put in the coldest and the lightest place, at night it is not terrible temperatures even + 5 + 10 degrees, day + 13- 15 degrees. After 3-4 days, the temperature can be raised to + 17-20 degrees during the day and up to +15 degrees at night.
- Some can be grown in a cool place, like tomatoes, but still need to ensure that the sprouts do not look oppressed.
You can adjust the temperature by simply preparing the boxes with cups to the window and from the window, opening the window for a while in a glad weather. You can cover (loosely) trays with cups with something, especially in the first couple of weeks to reach the appearance of germs. Do not forget to reclaim the shelter after closing the window. It is not particularly treated with the opening of the vents, it is easy to freeze seedlings. Control the temperature.
If some plants do not like in appearance, do not hurry to throw away, just mark them (I draw on the cups with a marker of pluses and minuses). Sometimes seemingly fastening hybrids with an increase in the daylight grow better fasteners. Observe them, write down the results of the observations, next year it will be interesting to check the results of the past sowing. By the feeding of peppers and eggplants, you can take a couple of weeks after the appearance of two-three real leaves, with the first picking. The proportions are always written on fertilizer packs. For example, for the first feeding it is approximately 1.5-2 grams of superphosphate and 1-1.5 grams of potash salt on a bucket of water, 1.5-2 grams of urea. The feeder is made after the usual watering for warm water. Two weeks after the dive need another feeding. And a week before the disembarkation, the stealing of potash salt is needed, as well as the extraxarrow (splashing on the leaves) feeding, one liter on about 100 plants: a half-chart of mangartages, 0.3 grams of copper mosquap, 0.3 grams of boric acid on 1 liter of water. Tomatoes feed after 7-10 days after dive, as well as as soon as the first flower bud appears. Proportions for first feeding: 1 teaspoon of urea, 40 grams of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium salt on 10 liters of water, this is enough for about 200 plants. The feeding is made on a wet land, after the feeding you need to pour again, if the soil is reckled, we will smash the feed for 2-3 days. The second feeding: Potassium and phosphorus increases twice, nitrogen (urea) is added only if the leaves of the pale green color, and the lower no boosters.
General rule for feeding: it is better to do it in warm weather outside the window so as not to provoke plant diseases.
During the day before the disembarkation, peppers can be sprayed and eggplant with epin solution. If tomatoes have already appeared for 4-5 days before landing, plants have already appeared, plants should be sprayed with a boric acid solution - 1 liter of water 1 grams of boric acid, while spraying is carried out only in cloudy weather, in the morning, since the sun can appear in the sun on the leaves Burns.
Also, for the prevention of phytoophulas, it is necessary to process seedlings 1-2 times with 1% Bordeaux fluid, the preparation is written above, and immediately before the disembarkation, it is possible to make a degreased milk, the proportion of 1:10 with water.
Spend classes are fed by complex mineral fertilizer 2-3 times.
Picking and pinching as preventing pulling Pulling seedlings turns it into a thin-scale, pale green, subsequently the fruits will not receive enough power out of the soil, so it is important to monitor that seedlings do not stretch.
Picky and eggplant pickup
I do not make, the reasons wrote above, but to ensure that the seedlings are not pulled out, it is still necessary. To prevent plant drawing from the lack of light, part of the seedlings of peppers and eggplant can be searched after the fifth-sixth real sheet (we do not believe the seedy), the plant will stop the growth for a couple of weeks, it will give more fruit, although later for a couple of weeks. Incommitted seedlings will give even less fruit, but earlier, so they pour not all peppers, and part, if we want to try harvest early. If we enter the seedlings already after disembarking into the ground, it may not be enough time for the development of side shoots.
Tomatoes pee absolutely necessary. The first picking is carried out in the phase of two real leaves, watering is produced in two hours before the process.
In a new cup, a finger is deepened or a pencil, size - so as not to be fused the root. The lower part of the root is repelled by nails or scissors by about a third. Keep the plant for leaves, and not for the stem, as you can reverse the thin stem. We transfer to the deepening, we carry almost to the seedy leaves, we carefully fall asleep, slightly tamper around the stem.
Two days after that we do not set the plants in the sun, the temperature is supported + 18-20 degrees, at night + 15-17, if it is hotter, plants will grow. On the second day after the dive carefully shry the ground - toothpick, fork, the temperature is reducing again.
The second picking is produced when Easter will become closely in a glass, plants simply translate, without cleaning the roots from the ground, do not touch the roots.
Left 8 cups of tomatoes between the first and second pickup, on the right tomatoes immediately after the second dive.
Spend a couple of times "cutting" a centimeter by 3-4, so that the bleached leg is increasing.
Tree-trimmed sometimes in mid-April:
If you believe in the lunar calendar, the main rules are as follows: plants whose fruits ripen over the ground, sow on a growing moon, and ripening under the ground - to descending; On the full moon and the new moon, as well as 1-2 days after and to them, the earth and plants give rest.
We need to tie plants as soon as they begin to clone. I enjoyed tapping a twine to the wooden shampuric for home kebabs, there are shampuric cheap. The sword wrap up "eight" so that the trunk does not touch the shampus.
Garter to shamproofs
Picking and pinching as preventing pulling Hardening before landing
For a couple of weeks before disembarking, seedlings are necessarily hardened, and both in the sun and in the cold, as well as in the wind.
First, just open the vessels not only during the day, but also at night. Then, in warm time, they bring to the balcony for a while from 2-3 hours, and after a couple of days, leave for a whole day. But at night the first days cover with film.
To adjust the temperature, use the thermometer, the door to the room can not be closed if the balcony or loggia is strongly cool in any of the days.
Before hardening the soil must be spilled with warm water, so the seedlings will be warmer, but at night the plants do not indulge in any case! And also watering does not produce cloudy weather.
If the first signs of the top of the top (the "Black leg" disease), suck, as if the "salute", around the sand stem. Watch that the plants do not break the wind so that the soil does not dry - in the wind and the sun it happens faster than in a warm apartment.
We harde on the loggia, not forgetting about the temperature control of the thermometer.
Size seedlings before landing
|Peppers and eggplants||Before disembarking, no more than 20-25 cm should be height, with a thick stem (3-4 mm at the soil surface), the leaves should be about 12-14, several buds.||Tomatoes before landing should be no more than 30-35 cm, the smaller the better. Well tempered seedling has a slightly purple trunk. Buds are also welcome.||Peppers and eggplants before landing:|
|Spend before landing:||Errors in growing seedlings Strongly small or, on the contrary, deep sealing seeds.||Leave the plants that proceed with the "cap", they will not give excellent harvest. If it is a pity to throw such plants, then the hat must be removed, in a mixture of it.||Overchard the frequent location of seeds in the box, it is necessary to have it so that it can be easily cut, that is, at a distance of 2.5-3.5 cm from each other.|
|Insufficient lighting, warm air - contributes to the stretching of seedlings. This also includes too early sowing, when all nature is still "sleeping" (January - the first half of February for peppers and eggplants, all February for tomatoes).||He strongly overgrowed tomatoes seedlings in mid-May (planted in January): Excessive watering or, on the contrary, irregular. Do not close plants from a strong draft, so the plants are "cold" from the supercooling of the soil. Plants often touch, roll off the unresolved to see if they satisfied. Control of crops can be done, but then there is already a seite, taking into account the percentage of germination. It is about 50-90% for different varieties and cultures.||Watering in low-spirited water - there will be accumulation of salts in the soil, raising on the surface.||Excessive or insufficient hardening.|
|Closely placed cups, because of this foliage it does not get enough sun. Plant crowns should not be very touching.||Pleasant little things in growing seedlings||At the beginning of March in a beautiful pot of velvets, there will be 4-5 seeds. Flowers will grow rapidly, will delight you in the process of care of the seedle.||Velhets at the end of April (scheduled March 1):|
|You can bargain with the cultivation of indoor tomatoes. The capacity after the second diver should be large, somewhere 3-5 liter. Many fruits, of course, will not, but this is because only to raise the mood. Sowing can be made in early February or March, dive and everything is done just as for ordinary tomatoes. The varieties of indoor tomatoes are different, I found on sale only "Florida Petit", I liked the results.||Tomatoes "Florida Petit" in mid-May (planted in early February):||Cucumber, I also tried to grow on the windowsill, fruits from planted in December I did not wait, the plant gave only flowers and 1-2 cm fetus fetus, then dried everything. But from the F1 planted in March, the cucumbers rose, however, very small, with the little finger of an adult, and there were only 5-6 things.||5|
|Cucumbers "Liebelle" in mid-May (planted in early March):||At first glance, nothing complicated in the cultivation of seedlings. But so consider experienced gardeners. Newbies sometimes allow mistakes that negatively affect the growth and development of seedlings. Let's look at how to grow seedlings at home correctly: general landing and care rules.||Soil for seedlings||First of all, I want to say a few words about the soil. Ready soil, sold in any horticultural store. No preliminary preparation is required. Just fill the ground cups and plant seeds.|
|When using land from the garden, it is recommended to warm it in the oven or turn it well. Warming up or freezing, eliminates the soil from pests and diseases.||Also see:||How to raise tomato seedlings at home||Selection of seeds for seedlings|
|When choosing seeds, there are also some subtleties. Buy sowing material in a specialized store or on the Internet. Be sure to read the information on the package - a description of the variety and shelf life. Seeds with an expired expiration date, it is not recommended to plant.||A couple of weeks before the estimated sowing date, check the germination of seeds. For this, several seeds germinate in a wet cloth. If the roots appeared fast in most seeds (about 90 percent), it means there is a sowing material of good quality.||Dates of planting seedlings||Seed seeds during the recommended time frame. It is impossible to belanded and hurry. With an early landing, seedlings will turn out and start blossoming on the windowsill. Ground plants, badly leaving in the garden.|
With late landing, seedlings will be strong, but bloom will get. As a result, the number of fruits collected from the bush will decrease.
Capacity for seedlings
Now a few words about tanks for growing seedlings. For seedlings, which will be raised for several months (for example, peppers or tomatoes), a capacity of at least 500 ml is used.
- Cucumbers and other cultures grown in just a couple of weeks, they grow better in small cups, about 200 ml.
- A little bit about watering. Before shoots, a box with a seedy is covered with glass or film. Under such shelter, moisture remains. When the first plants go, the glasses are cleaned and transfer the seedlings to the sunny window sill.
- Support moderate soil moisture. We necessarily make holes in the container so that the excess moisture leaves from the soil.
- How to care for cucumbers in the open soil
- Good lighting for seedlings
- Good lighting. Seedling of any cultures, loves sunlight. They are grown necessarily on the windowsill, which comes to the south. On the windows from the northern side, little light. There will be seedlings. To help in the development of seedlings, additionally highlight plants with special lamps.
Adhering to these simple rules, you will really get a good seedlings. The principle of growing seedlings for all cultures is almost the same, so apply my tips are universal when growing any vegetables.
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Read more interesting and useful tips from experienced gardeners and gardens on the site
Hello, workers are a ridge! In touch Elena, today we will talk about how to grow seedlings at home. Taking advantage of the experience of several generations of our peasant family, I will tell you when it is better to make seeds and a transplant in open soil, as well as what boxes should be chosen.
For ease of use, the articles immediately bring the sowing calendar with an indication of favorable and unfavorable days for 2019.
Type of work
- Sowing at seedlings
- Tomatoes, sweet pepper, Luca Chernushka, Petunia, Begonias
- 1, 10, 15, 16, 19, 20, 29
- 5, 6, 12, 21
- We continue sowing
tomatoes, peppers, petunias,
SEW at the seedlings
Eggplant, chrysanthemums, carnations
1, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17
3, 4, 20
At the beginning of the month, we complete the seedlings landing, then transplant from the total boxes in the individual capacity
7, 14, 16, 19 and 21
3, 5, 31
Care of seedlings: Watering, on the need to highlight; After the 20th, landing in open ground (on the weather)
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 18
Rechazzle seedlings in open ground
7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 18, 28
20, 29, 30
Rechazzle seedlings in open ground, feeding
4, 5, 6, 12, 13
3, 11, 25
Rechazzle seedlings in open ground
Looking off late cultures
3, 11, 17, 30
What cultures are grown through seedlings
The method of cultivation of culture: from seeds or seedlings - is determined by its vegetation period (i.e., time from sowing to fruiting), requirements for heat and climatic characteristics of the region.
Under the conditions of the middle, they grow seedlings:
Most cultures with a long period of ripening (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, watermelons, melons, pumpkins);
- strawberries from seeds if the variety does not give a mustache;
Some two-year-old cultures to get a harvest or flowers in the same year (violets, some bows);
Some spicy herbs;
Flowers with small seeds (violets, petunia, lion zev, Portulak).
Timing seed seeds
When sowing seedlings depends on the characteristics of the variety, the places of its further growing (greenhouse or open soil), terrain and even home conditions.
So, for example, it makes no sense to sow tomatoes early if there is little place at home for seedlings, dark plants will be pulled out and it will be hard to transplant. In this case, it is necessary to land in the open ground.
Tip: If you do not chase for a large yield of tomatoes in early terms, it is enough to plant the minimum number of seedlings, and in the summer time to replenish the plantation at the expense of steps. Steyoka retains all the properties of the parent plant, including hybrid.
Greenhouses should be grown before garden. Late-weighted varieties are usually placed before their early "colleagues", but you need to consider our own needs and, most importantly, recommendations on the packaging of seeds.
So that the tips on the bag brought benefit, purchase seeds adapted to your area.
It is also worth listening to the lunar calendar for the current year: the moon phases are largely determined by the weather, and this is, unlike a horoscope, objective information.
It is possible to determine the seeding time using the countdown from the date of landing in the soil (see Figure).
Preparation of soil
Each plant has its favorite composition and type of soil. But there are general rules how to prepare a good soil for seedlings.
Earth must be fertile.
Mineral and organic substances must be balanced and accessible to assimilation.
In loose soil, oxygen comes to the roots, which means they grow well.
It is necessary to observe the acid-alkaline balance of the medium. For seedlings, as a rule, it ranges from 6.5 to 7.0.
All roots, metal particles and other unnecessary items should be chosen from the soil.
The soil must be processed from pests.
What package to choose
Traditionally, the seedlings took the boxes and individual pots. But now it has become popular to use the others, both forgotten antiques and modern cultivation technologies. Consider the review every way.
Pros: Boxes are easily and compactly placed on the window or table, it is very convenient to water and feed the plants.
Minus: The roots of the plants are wooped among themselves, which makes it difficult to transplant.
Pros: saving space, land, ease of use (especially in options with removable riding or with a pallet), the roots are not closer.
- Minus: plants are not always enough space.
- Peat pots
Pros: Not required Transplantation, sprout is additionally provided with nutrients, the walls are passed through water and air.
Cons: if it is overly pouring, the walls will cover mold, and from the lack of moisture, the Earth is sewn and will go away from the walls.
Pluses: saving places, the ability to immediately rejoice weak plants, convenient to transplant.
- Minus: Slow, compared to a pottery, growth.
- Ulief method
- The snail is called the spiral tape of polyethylene, inside which is placed toilet paper, earth and seeds.
|After sowing, the snail is tied up with a rubber band and placed in the tray, where water is poured for watering throughout the growth.|
|Culture||Pros: We immediately see the weak shoots, there is the possibility of their chosen, saving space and soil.||Minus: Plant's roots are close to each other, which means that they can intertear.||Peat tablets||Plus: Peat supplies sprouts with nutrients.|
|Eggshell||It is used mainly for growing cucumbers. Before applying the shell, wash it is not necessary, but it is definitely worth dried.||Pros: When falling into the ground, the roots are not injured, an additional source of calcium.||Minus: you need to carefully follow the moisture content of the Earth.||Full cycle of growing seedlings: from sowing to landing in open ground|
|Preparation of seeds||Seed preparation includes several stages.||Check the required number and shelf life||It is advisable to make it a little ahead of the estimated sowing to have time to replenish stocks.|
|Cucumber||Part of the seeds from each sachet lay out on a wet cloth and germinate. A few days later (each culture has its own period of germination), they calculate how many percent gave sprouts.||If the figure is less than 50%, such a sowing material is not at all, it is not necessary to increase reserves with a correction amendment.|
|Selection equally large seeds will get more predictable and rich harvest. Therefore, some gardeners, especially those who collect planting material solely from their plot, pay great attention to calibration.||If the seeds are small and compare them manually for a long time, seed seeds can be made like this: Soak 3% (cucumbers) or 5% (tomatoes, eggplant, bell pepper) Salt solution for 5 minutes and everything that pops up to the surface, without regret, throw out.||Those that sank are washed under running water, dried and used by destination. Optionally, you can choose the largest.|
|Important note: Similarly, you can check the germination of only fresh cucumber seeds, because by walking for a while, they dry and pop up, despite the good quality. Peas, beans and corn are soaked in ordinary cold water.||All seeds, in addition to the processing in agrofirma (this is indicated on the package), it is necessary to disinfect. In most cases, the infected material is to blame in vegetable diseases.||Disinfection is performed in two ways: heating and drank in a solution of manganese. Seeds warm in thermos with hot water during the recommended number of minutes, and then move them for a couple of minutes in cold water.|
This method has two minuses: part of the seed loses its germination and need to strictly withstand the temperature of a certain time.
Heating mode for some crops: Cabbage - 20 minutes at 52 - 54 ° C, eggplant - 25 minutes at 50 - 52 ° C, tomato - 30 minutes at 50 - 52 ° C.
The disinfection of manganese is produced within 45 minutes in 1% solution (tomatoes) or 20 minutes - in 2% (pepper, cabbage, muggy).
By cons methods include the need for accurate compliance with the proportion of the solution, which is pretty difficult at home.
It is more convenient to displaced in any way if you place the seeds in a gauze or shatter bag.
Soaking accelerates germination of such sluggish growing crops like carrots, pepper. But everyone else can also be immersed in water for better germination.
Peas, the beans can only be placed in just a couple of hours, tomatoes, cucumbers and cabbage will take about 12, and carrots - as many as 1.5 days. Water during prolonged soaking should be changed, seeds - mix. It can also be soaked in a solution of growth stimulants (aloe juice, epin, humat, etc.)
After soaking the seeds, you can immediately sow in the ground, but it is more efficient to pre-germinate. To do this, they are put on a wet fabric at room or slightly above the temperature and stored before the appearance of sprouts. Now you can select the most viable and carefully place them in the prepared soil. And you can increase the cold resistance by the method of narrowing.
This is the name of the hardening of seeds with a low positive or zero temperature. Dust seeds (just waiting for the first shoots) are placed in a refrigerator or snow at a certain time. For example, cabbage is kept from 10 to 15 days at 0 - 3 degrees.
Narovization can be carried out for cabbage, celery, onions, carrots, parses, chrysanthemums and is not recommended for turnips, cabbage, beets, radish, trousers.
Each vegetable or flower has its own duration and landing requirements. The container is filled with the prepared soil, the tampering and leaving a little place from above, they are abundantly watered and placed seed. The more its size, the thicker should be above it layer of the Earth.
Some small seeds (for example, petunia) do not fall asleep at all. After sowing, the container is covered with polyethylene and put in a warm place before germination. Some seeds board at any illumination, other (petunias, ameratum, lionic zev) requires multiple light, and some (Verbena, Phlox) are a complete darkness.
Picking is a plants transplant to a large capacity for the development of the root system. Thus, a young sprout not only gets more nutrients, but also slightly reduces growth, which means it ceases to stretch. The gardener also gets the opportunity to inspect the roots, remove the winding, and even carry out a revision on the windowsill and get rid of weak instances.
The picking can not be done, the living seeds immediately into individual pots. Some plants, such as eggplants, patissons, pumpkins, melons, watermelons do not like to "move" and may get sick. The survival rate of pepper after dive of gilders differs. But most vegetables responds to the procedure for the best harvest.
As for the pinch of the root, the opinions on this score diverge. Some advise to shorten the root for a third to form lateral roots, others do not recommend that.
Most often dive seedlings with a small lump of land, without disturbing the root system. This method is called transshipment. For tomatoes, multiple transshipment is allowed, since they give a good harvest.
Approximate dates of picking for some crops:
Cabbage Belococcal: 7 - 8 days;
Broccoli cabbage: 9 - 10 days.
- Often nutrients that were in the ground when landing, the plant is not enough. For a long time staying in a pot, it has time to spend stocks and needs a new food arrival.
- The use of integrated fertilizer is not always justified, since one of its components can already be in the soil, and the excess is also harmful as the disadvantage. Therefore, it is more often advised to resort to one-component feeding.
- It is not enough to notice what the plant is missing, it is possible for such signs:
- phosphorus - the stem darkens, the leaves twist and fall out;
- Potassium - white spots appear on the lower leaves, the upper either does not grow at all, or it is very small and coated with rust;
- Nitrogen - the lower leaves are yellowing, the plant slows down growth.
Quick Start Guide
- 1st feeding 2nd feeding
- 3rd feeding 4th feeding
- Tomatoes In the phase of three real leaves (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium)
- Two weeks after dive (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) Two weeks after the previous feeding (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium)
At the age of 60 days (phosphorus, potassium)
After the first real sheet (urea) appears
20 days after the first (urea)
A week before landing in the soil (superphosphate)
After 14 days (comprehensive fertilizer) Cabbage A week after picking (diluted bird litter) A week before landing on a permanent place (superphosphate with soot) Flowers A week after dive (nitroammofoska)
Once every 10 days the same composition
Along with industrial means, folk (onion husks, ash, iodine, coffee grip, egg shell are used for feeding.
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. Landing in open soil or greenhouse A week after picking (diluted bird litter) To make plants well, they need to put it right. In this case, not only dates, but also the weather, and the technology of transplant is important. Flowers The land on the ridges or in the greenhouse is prepared in the fall: it is drunk on the bayonet shovel, remove the roots. In the spring, organic fertilizers (manure, peat or humid) are spread over the surface, after which they are drunk again. Good preparation is also the autumn planting of the Siderats.
If outside the window is sunny, plants transplant closer in the evening, and in cloudy weather you can in the morning.
To make the land of the earth, the land in a pot is not crowded several days before transplanting, and in an hour and a half, it is moisturized abundantly. Then the seedlings together with the soil will easily come out from the container, and the roots will not be exposed.
The technology of landing in different plants is somewhat different.
If tomatoes have grown and stretched out, it is necessary to plant them deeper into the ground in order to stimulate the growth of extra roots and reduce the load on the stem.
The figures show two options for their transplant. Also practiced additional hyphenation (for tomatoes and peppers).
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. The cucumbers are planted on the same depth as in the pot, and in a couple of days, when white dots appear on the stalk, they sprinkle the earth to the level of seedy leaves to get extra roots. A week after picking (diluted bird litter) Well for this should initially be in the recess. Flowers After transplanting, it is recommended that it is still a little plummet to pour the well, to catch and pour out the earth or peat so that the soil is not cracked. In the heat of "Novoselov" it is recommended to strengthen or contacted.
Today, everyone friends. Good crop and new meetings in your home!
Growing food in the conditions of the city is popular all over the world. So, Britt Riley (Britta Riley) lives in a tiny apartment in New York. She came up with a vertical garden on hydroponics. He takes little space and brings a good harvest. Britt told about his innovation on TED.
In the West, if the product is marked with Eco, Bio or Organic, it means two things. First, these products are grown, collected and reworked in accordance with environmental standards, that is, without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, growth stimulants and other "nasty". They were certified, and serious organizations guaranteed their quality. Secondly, the bioproducts are an order of magnitude more expensive.
In Russia, the "pure food" market is only originated. Not yet formed bioserity and control systems. And the difference in prices between bioproducts and ordinary vegetables and fruit is sometimes reaching up to 1,000%! Therefore, for us the most eco, bio and organic - these are products grown with their own hands.
But dachas and relatives in the village are not all. What to do the children of Urbana, accustomed to see the potatoes of the soot and grids, and greens in vacuum packages? Grow vegetables and fruits right on the balcony or windowsill.
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. Saving. Vegetables and fruits are expensive, especially in winter. With a homeland garden no longer have to adapt to the season (we can only eat tomatoes in July, and apples in September). A week after picking (diluted bird litter) You yourself, with your own hands from a tiny seed can grow a plant, you can collect fruits. This is creative activity, charging positive energy. Flowers You can improve your knowledge about biology, get useful skills and acquire a fascinating hobby.
Your children will see how tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables grow, and will understand that they do not materialize a miraculous way in the refrigerator, their cultivation is serious work.
You can surprise friends and acquaintances. Imagine how you will boast harvest, showing the window "Circots". ;)
What you need to grow vegetables and greens at home
. This is usually a windowsill or balcony. Better if they go to the sunny side. If not, there will be lamps for additional lighting. If necessary, the windowsill can be expanded or to build racks for "beds" (the minimum distance between the shelves is 50 cm).
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. . Glinic or plastic pots, wooden boxes can serve for homemade garden. The main thing is that in the day there are holes for draining water. Capacity is recommended to put on pallets. A week after picking (diluted bird litter) Priming Flowers . There are many soil mixtures for indoor gardens. As a rule, several layers are made: peat, compost, fuel. You can prepare the soil yourself, and you can buy in a specialized store.
. Some varieties of tomatoes or cucumbers grow well at home, while others do not even spare. Therefore, before you do room garden, you need to sit on the forums, read articles on the Internet and find out what seeds to buy.
In addition, you may need fertilizers, feeding, a thermometer and a vessel for settling water (home plants are watered with water room temperature, estimated from chlorine).
There is an inventory, now you need to decide what exactly is planted. Lifehaker has already written about some vegetables, perfectly growing on the windowsill.
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. Today we will tell you about ten such plants. A week after picking (diluted bird litter) Carrot Flowers . There are many soil mixtures for indoor gardens. As a rule, several layers are made: peat, compost, fuel. You can prepare the soil yourself, and you can buy in a specialized store.
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: from 15 to 25 ºС.
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. : through ≈70 days. A week after picking (diluted bird litter) To grow at home you need to take miniature varieties of carrots. You can plant in boxes, pots, or just cropped plastic bottles with holes in the bottom. The soil should take drainage. Flowers Seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of about 7 cm. When carrots go up and germinate for several centimeters, it needs to be switched, leaving the strongest sprouts at a distance of about 2 cm from each other. It is not recommended to keep the beds under the right sunny rays.
Water carrots at home you need often, but you need to follow, so that the moisture does not have too much, otherwise the rooteplood starts. From time to time, you can feed the lowest nitrogen fertilizers (if there is a lot of it, the whole growth will go to the BOTS). It is also very useful sometimes loose soil.
Pepper grown on the balcony
: "Treasure Island", "Dwarf", "Watercolor", "Swallow" and others.
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. : After 100-130 days. A week after picking (diluted bird litter) For growing pepper in the apartment, it is recommended to use special soil enriched with trace elements. It is sold in stores for gardeners. Soil can be supplemented with hydrogels for greater looseness. Flowers Seeds first plant in small pots, which are closed with food film and put in a warm place. When the first sprouts appear (in one or two weeks), there are several small punctures in the film. After some time, the peppers will strengthen, then it can be transplanted into large pots or shoulders. It is necessary to do it carefully not to damage the root. The plant is rouded by a third, after which the warm (30 ºС) water is watered.
In the future, pepper can be watered every day. This plant loves light, so in addition to natural lighting, a white spectrum lamps are recommended. It is necessary to take care of home-grown pepper from drafts and direct sunlight.
It is possible to fertilize nitrogen fertilizers, but the potash salt and chloride potassium will destroy the roots of the plant. With proper care, peppers on the windowsill can delight the fruits to two years.
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: "Pigmey", "Bonsai", "Bead" and others.
A week after picking (diluted bird litter) : 90-100 days (depending on the variety). Flowers Soil, as in the case of pepper, it is more convenient to buy ready. Capacity is recommended to take cylindrical: it is better filled with the root system.
First, the seeds germinate in small pots: buried to a depth of 1.5 cm, covered with food film and leave in warm place to the first sprouts. When tomatoes rose, they are divened to a greater and deep dishes.
It is important that the plant get uniform lighting. To do this, over the "Groces" you can hang daylight lamps or regularly rotate the containers to the window.
Watering should be carefully: Cherry is easy to pour. When the plant creates, the soil is recommended from time to time to loosen and feed mineral fertilizers. If necessary, the trunk of tomato can be tiered to the support (wooden skeletal or pencil). It is also important to ensure that pests do not appear on tomatoes.
By the way, not only Cherry, but also the usual tomatoes, are beautifully growing in home groces.
Cucumbers grown on the window
Adaptation plants to change conditions gradually: first slightly reduce the temperature in the house, then carry out ventilation without drafts and, finally, in the spring, it is put in the spring for several hours to the street. Sun is also gradually learning, opening for scattered lighting. : from 21 to 24 ºС. A week after picking (diluted bird litter) : After 35-45 days. Flowers For cucumbers, quite large containers are needed, a volume of at least 6 liters. The soil must be loose, with peat or compost.
At home, self-polishing grade of cucumbers grow well. First you need to prepare seeds: they are poured into a weak hydrochloride solution, those that pop up, throw away. Then the suitable seeds of 20 minutes are soaked in a solution of manganese, after which is washed on a wet marla and plant in the ground (under the film). When seedlings go up and grow up, it can be seeded in large containers.
Watering homemade cucumbers for warm water every day, but with caution. Leaves can also spray with a spray gun. Calivial Selith is recommended as feeding.
When the capers of the cucumbers are formed and grow up, the backups should be built for them so that the plant can be placed.
: "Carmen", "White Fang", "Selesta F1" and others.
: from 18 to 20 ºС. : through ≈40 days. .