Rumors about the existence of the "serum of truth", unlocking the tongue to the most persistent spies, appeared at the end of the 19th century. The peak of interest in this topic came on the times of the Cold War, but now there is no no, but I am slipping the theory that the special services applied a special drug to achieve recognition. The usual Internet users are also not indifferent to this topic - the request "serum truth" is driven into a search engine "Yandex" about 7,000 times a month. So is there a miraculous drug really and what does he represent himself?
To make talk to talk
In everyday life, we all know one lobbing remedy - alcohol. A decent dose of alcohol is seriously dulling such socially determined feelings as shame and wine, reduces self-control and strongly narrows perception. In such a state, a person really can break what I would never have thought about sober. Another thing is that ask targeted questions to a drunk person is difficult: one can never say exactly what he heard and as interpreted.
Nevertheless, it is the state of alcohol intoxication that inspired psychiatrists in search of substances that could make people tell the truth, even when they do not want it. In the process, almost all known drugs were tested: cocaine, opium, Mescalin, LSD, hallucinogenic mushrooms and marijuana (which worked worse than everyone). Some effect they were all given, but researchers quickly became clear that, while in the changed state of consciousness subjects
a) do not distinguish reality from fantasy,
b) may be under the influence of hallucinations,
B) become extremely easily suggested.
Being in narcotic intoxication, a person will easily agree that it was he who caused the arrival on the Earth of orange plush humanoids, enslaved Uruguay. Therefore, it is impossible to consider the information obtained in this way.
Dr. Howz did everything invenue
However, in 1922, the American doctor Robert Ernest Hauz published an article in which he told about Skopolamine - vegetable alkaloid, which at that time was used in preparing for anesthesia. Howes noted that with the introduction of small doses of the drug, people became much frank, even when no one asked for them. The "narcanalysis" method even began to actively be used by the police. However, after several high-profile cases, when the testimony mined in such a way turned out to be false, the courts refused to accept the information received during the drug analysis. The problem of Skopolamine was still the same as in other drugs - under his influence, people could not distinguish fantasies and hallucinations from reality.
In the 50s, some countries returned to anesthesia, but with a new substance - Penothal sodium In the invention of the British doctor of Rossister Lewis. The drug was stamped by consciousness, made a person talkative and suggested, but ... at times he called Amnesia. Sometimes in real time: patients sometimes did not remember not only their answers, but even instantly forgot the questions that they were asked to answer. Later it turned out that Lewis was godlessly and felt the facts in his studies and Pontal Sodium also rejected.
Amital interview method
Amobarbital, amital sodium And some other drugs from the group of barbiturates are actively used in psychiatry for "discharge" patients with a stupor or mutism (the condition when the patient does not respond to questions and does not submit signs of desire to come into contact, with a saved speech). Preparations are administered intravenously. After 2-5 minutes, the patient flows into the state of Euphoria, becomes complacent, sincere and talkative.
Probably, the special services could not pass by such a find. Someone subbands, the author of the book "Punish medicine", argued that in the second half of the 20th century, the pharmacological interrogation using the Amital Interview method was subjected to dissidents in the Special Methods and the Serbian Institute.
In some Western countries, the drug analysis method with the use of barbiturates is still recognized. However, it is carried out in exceptional cases, in clinics, with the voluntary consent of the suspect and with the participation of a special commission consisting of representatives of the charge and protection, psychiatrists, psychologists, investigator, linguist, and sometimes judges. After the completion of the procedure, the suspect, already in the sober consciousness, the results of the drug addure, and only after conscious recognition use data as evidence.
In the early 2000s, the media was detected by rumors about the use of special services in the affairs of Alexey Pichugin and Ivan Rybkin. A certain SP-117, not having taste, colors and smell allegedly jumped out almost in tea.
It is likely that the special services really do not leave attempts to invent the perfect "truth serum". But it seems, on ambitiousness, this project is not inferior to the development of teleport. After all, human consciousness and memory is an incredibly complex thing that does not decline in the components and generates chimer even in normal condition. Studies of the effect of various chemicals on the brain rarely give unambiguous results, and what acts per person may well be helpless in respect of the other.
So serum truth like that we saw in Harry Potter, there are no humanity yet. How there is no one hundred percent way to determine a person lying or not.
The problem of the rapid receipt of truthful information from the captured enemies appeared at the dawn of military history
And remains relevant and soy. Many millennia, military art developed and improved, and funds for drawing information remained alone and the same: the punch, forceps, silly iron, etc., and the like. In the humane and enlightened 20th century, the arsenal of the Inquisitors supplemented electric current. Despite the seeming technical news
The principle remained the same: to break the person of the interrogated pain until he goes to forced cooperation.
This innovation based on a completely different principle was t. "truth serum". This expression combines psychoactive substances that are violently introduced interrogated to get the necessary information from them.
Strictly speaking, "serum truth" is not serum. The serum in a wholebiological sense is a dispersed mixture of fresh proteins, something like cottage cheese, strongly diluted with water. Serum in a narrow medical, hematological sense is a liquid part of blood (blood plasma), from which protein (fibrinogen) is removed, responsible for Eë coagulation. The pain is injured on the field, anticipate serum (PSS) is mandatory. From there the name "serum" migrated to psychoactive substances, which are also injected for violently, although the drugs themselves are not serum.
The history of the truth serum began in 1913 in the US state of Texas. Obster Dr. Robert House received childbirth at home and introduced a guinea Skopolamine which was then widely used as an anesthetic. The obstetrician asked the father to bring home scales to determine the weight of the child. The husband was looking for them for a long time, but could not find. When he shouted in irritation: "Where are these scales?", The fused woman clearly replied: "They are in the kitchen, on a nail in the picture." Dr. House was amazed. The feminine was skrenogen, she still did not understand that she had already born a child, but nevertheless, she understood the question and gave a clear, truthful answer.
It is somewhat strange for an obstetrician, but Robert House was inspired by the idea of using scopolamine in justice (of course, without the consent of suspects). The first questioned under anesthesia was W. S. scrivener, which contained Dallas in a district prison on charges of a pharmacy robbery. In his publication in the "Journal of Medicine", Texas, Dr. House, described Sreenger as a "very smart white man." The second subjects became the blacks-linked "medium mind". Skopolamine gave great results, and the masses spoke about the numeral, although the legally educated part of the Society denied all the options for its use.
Chemical structure of scopolamine To understand the action of the serum truth, you need to know how the nervous system of man works normally. It is the highest unifying and control system in the body. In the case, the reflexes are laid that regulate the heartbeat, breathing, digestion and other functions of the internal organs are T. Naz. "Vegetative nervous system, VNS". At the next level, control over the equilibrium, position and movement of the body in space is a somatic nervous system, the SNA. At the very top - the highest nervous activity, which distinguishes us from animals. This is consciousness. In the rough approximation, it consists of two layers - deep (self-awareness, CO) and superficial (self-expression, SV). SV is the result of interaction with the environment and is intended to be the best adapting personality to it. Thus, St. Never reveals completely CO, but only some of its aspects that are best consistent with the state of the environment in a particular place and time. To fully disclose CO, it is necessary to completely exclude the environmental impact, i.e. It is necessary for a person to stay alone only with his thoughts. Even the easiest and gentle presence of the environment, in the form of a beloved woman, a confessor or a psychologist, inevitably contributes some distortion in the manifestation of CO. Especially it is impossible to get to CO, if a person is pre-configured to actively oppose - the default and deception of the interrogative.
It has long been noticed: "That the sober on the mind, then drunk in the language." The "drunk frankness" phenomenon consists in selective braking of the upper layers of self-expression with the preserved activity of the lower layers of self-awareness. Freed from the "prohibiting" situational control of the nerve centers of CO, the CO begins to produce "pure source information", not a corrected place and time. The loss of consciousness control during narcotic or alcohol intoxication, as well as with normal population, always goes from the highest sections of nervous activity to the lower. Recovery (waking up) passes in the reverse order.
The problem of practical monitoring of consciousness is that the scheme of the vegetative nervous system is a somatic nervous system - the highest nervous activity (self-awareness - self-expression) corresponds to reality no more than a 1: 100000 card corresponds to a larger. Get some general representation is possible, but the reality is an order of magnitude more and more diverse. In fact, there are no clear boundaries between the layers of the nervous system, they intersect with each other as woven fingers of the hands. Yes, and the layers are much more, psychologists and psychiatrists are studying their many years.
At the present stage of the development of pharmacology and medicine, selective "shutdown" of certain zones and sections of the cortex of the brain, where the highest nervous activity and consciousness are concentrated, it is impossible. Alcohol, drugs and drugs are "disconnected" all the bark at once. What exactly the process of "shutdowns" is passed, it is impossible to predict in advance. Some sites are preserved amazing control over consciousness. All higher nervous operations are completely "falling", and involuntary somatic reactions begin - the balance and coordination of movements, the visual image is bothering and "sailing", the person loses the orientation in space, etc.
So at the level of monitoring consciousness, the effect of the "patchwork blanket" is obtained. The trifles in the consciousness control system are, but not everywhere and not even selectively, but chaotic. You can remove any certain information from open bars, but it is very difficult. You can get confirmation or denial, asking direct questions like "Did you do it?" Or "something is there there?" However, it is almost impossible to achieve a detailed, logically connected explanation of any act or guide location. Fully disable control over consciousness will not work either. This will result in the loss of a large number of valuable information, and besides, some basic vegetative functions turn off - control over the breath and blood pressure in the vessels. Alcoholics and drug addicts often die from suffocation, which arises as a result of braking center of breathing.
These features strongly limit the use of truth serum in jurisprudence. But still the ancient Romans noticed that Sapienti Sat is a smart person enough of one word. The special services of the whole world work outside the ethical categories "Good" - "bad", and none of them shy Darkanalysis - Interrogation under the influence of psychoactive substances when it considers it necessary. In the arsenal interrogatory psychologists are: Skopolamine. Alkaloid, contained together with atropine in plants of the family of Parenic (Skopoly, Handwood, Belene, Durane, and some others). Colorless transparent crystals or white crystalline powder. Easily soluble in water (1: 3), soluble in alcohol (1:17). In order to stabilize solutions for injections, a solution of hydrochloric acid is added to pH of 2.8-3.0. Chemically scopolamine is close to Atropine: it is a saccopin ester and pathic acid. Close to atropine on the effect on peripheral cholinoreactive systems. Like Atropine, it causes the expansion of pupils, accommodation paralysis, the increase in heart rate, relaxation of smooth muscles, reducing the secretion of digestive and sweat glands. There is also a central cholinolytic effect. Usually causes a sedative effect: reduces motor activity, a hypnotic action can have. The characteristic property of the scopolamine is the amnesia caused to them. Skopolamine is sometimes used in psychiatric practice as a soothing agent, in neurological - for the treatment of Parkinsonism, in surgical practice together with the analgesics (morphine, commotol) - to prepare for anesthesia, sometimes as an antiemetic and soothing agent for sea and air sickness.Penotal - Injection preparation based on Tiopental sodium
Tiopental sodium. A mixture of sodium thiobarbituric acid with anhydrous sodium carbonate. Slows down the closure time of the GAB-dependent channels on the postsynaptic diaphragm of the brain neurons, lengthens the time of chlorine ions inwards in the neuron and causes hyperpolarization of its membrane. Suppresses the excitation effect of amino acids (asparginic and glutamine). In large doses, directly activating the gamke receptors, provides a GABA-stimulating effect. It has anticonvulsant activity, increasing the threshold of the excitability of neurons and blocking the conduct and spread of a convulsive impulse on the brain. Promotes muscle relaxation, suppressing polysinactic reflexes and slowing down the spinal cord in inserting neurons. Reduces the intensity of metabolic processes in the brain, the utilization of glucose and oxygen brain. It has a sleeping pills, which is manifested in the form of accelerating the flow process and changes in the structural structure. Inhibits (dose-dependent) respiratory center and reduces its sensitivity to carbon dioxide gas. Provides (dose-dependent) cardiodepressive action. Amital sodium. Ethyl esphir of isoamilbarbituric acid. It acts just like sodium thiopental, but more "gently". The effect of the application comes slower and continues longer.
In the 40s in the United States was very popular mescaline - Drug from Mexican cactus Peyote, where Carlos Castaneda made himself. For him, the Secret Service and Bureau of US Strategic Services (OSS, the Predecessor of the CIA) was seriously taken. The special services became interested in the effect that Mescalin produced Mexico on Indians who used him in the rites of repentance. Ethnographer Weston La Barr in the monograph "Cult Peyote" (1938) wrote: "By calling the leader, the members of the tribe got up and were publicly recognized in the misconduct and resentment caused by others ... Tears are not ritual, tende on those who are often recognized and fully repentable. All of them asked the leader to instruct them on the True path. " Scientific experiments have proven that during the action of Mescalin is significantly suppressed by the will. Experiments were not carried out in laboratories, but in concentration camps. The drug was introduced unnoticed by unsuspecting prisoners.
There are reports that in 1942, the head of the secret laboratory of the NKVD of the USSR, Majanovsky, studying experiments with poisons on the sentenced to execution, found that under the influence of certain doses of the drug, the experimentally begins to speak exclusively. After that, with the approval of the leadership, he engaged in a "problem of frankness" at interrogations. Such experiments were carried out within two years. It is reliably known that in 1983, the KGB was used by SP-26, SP-36 and SP-108 to investigate the sabotage at the Vilnius Machine-Plant "Zalgiris", with the sanctions of the First Deputy Chairman of the KGB Zinyev. The case of the use of truth serum by the special services of India in relation to the accused in the terrorist attack in Mumbai in 2008 is also widely known.
As the simplest means capable of unleashing a language, a decoction of whites, which is easy to prepare at home. This decoction can be used and as an anesthetic, introducing a person to a half-consistent state, in such a state, a person albeit a little bit, but it is able to give clear truthful answers to the questions posed.
The "serum truth" is called a rat mixture from the following substances: Mescalin, Skopolamine (just as it is contained in Belene), Amital, Anabazin, Penotal Sodium, Barbiturates. If you have the opportunity to find all this, you can, of course, experiment, but possible consequences entirely and completely will lie on your conscience .Http: //www.bolshoyvopros.ru/questions/2056477-kak-prigotovit-syvorotku-pravdy-doma.html
What is "serum truth"
"Serum Pravda" is a drug, located for a force for a person, containing psychoactive funds, affecting the consciousness of a person, under the influence of which he tells the necessary information. If you think that the name "serum" corresponds to the declared and represents a dispersed mixture of rolled proteins, like cottage cheese with water, then you are mistaken.
Scopolaminum Structure - Truth Elixira
In the process of production of truth serums, such substances were involved:
Amital and pontotal sodium;
Barbiturates and the like. Http: //www.scienceedebate2008.com/truth-serum/
As the simplest means capable of unleashing a language, a decoction of whites, which is easy to prepare at home. This decoction can be used and as an anesthetic, introducing a person to a half-consistent state, in such a state, a person albeit a little bit, but it is able to give clear truthful answers to the questions posed.
4 years ago
The "serum truth" is called a rat mixture from the following substances: Mescalin, Skopolamine (just as it is contained in Belene), Amital, Anabazin, Penotal Sodium, Barbiturates. If there is an opportunity to find all this, you can, of course, experiment, but possible consequences entirely and completely will lie on your conscience.
The simplest serum of the truth at home is alcohol, or rather the way for its use and proportions, but it is important that you yourself do not fall into forgetting, and remember the goal. For example, you invite you to coffee with brandy and vary the dose of bringing to brandy with coffee with this coffee should be slightly - just start asking questions.
And the composition of the true serum of the truth used by the special services is classified, and more accurately classified proportions - they need to use any available methods.
Fortunately, or unfortunately, the serum truth at home is not to do. First, all components of the substance and the cocktail itself are narcotic drugs, and no grass there, and very potent substances. And secondly serum truth will have to do intravenously by injection. I think it is impracticable.
2 years ago
Traveled in South America in search of the so-called serum truth. Only in Colombia she has another name, it is called the breath of the devil, a black angel or an angel of death. It acts much more efficient than Mescalin, etc. The person is under chemical hypnosis, makes everything they say and does not give out anything that a person is under something. Previously, the breath of the devil was used to all who were not laziness, prostitutes, robbers, etc. After the tourists in Colombia stopped buying cocaine, because the breath of the devil was mixed into this drug, drug cartels suffered huge losses. Under the fear of death, they banned the use of this drug within the country. If earlier this drug cost 50 Pesso, now it costs about $ 500 per gram.https: //www.liveinternet.ru/users/www_sv/post452559661/ for general development
In order not to use such poisons, you can simply pour vodka to a person and talk to souls or start talking quietly with a sleeping person - can tell everything as nice :-)
Serum truth can be considered any alcohol, it is well unleashing the language, but not everyone will suit a person to become aggressive, or just fall asleep. Another way to force a person to speak is to drink such substances such as Mescalin, Skopolamine, Anabazin, Amital and Ponotoil Sodium, or Barbiturates, mixing in food. However, it is worth remembering that these substances have a side effect, besides, it is unethical to get out so.
Those preparations and components that are used for its preparation are not sold simply so in the pharmacy.
Just Khoma [217K] The "serum truth" is called psychoactive substances that are able to influence the psyche of a man in a short time, in their essence - this is all the potent drugs, for which even the recipe will not discharge and who do not buy in the pharmacy. To unleash a tongue to the interlocutor in most cases, it is enough to plunder vodka, the main thing with the dosage does not miss, clearly catch the line when it should be slowed down a little. This is the method of "tongue disconnection", for which the special services apply "serum truth" is just suitable for home conditions. Stasy12.
Some probably need to prepare the "serum of truth" at home. Options may be several. Indeed, alcohol often makes man telling the truth, for example, cognac. Knowing people argue that it all depends on the proportions. There are also medical preparations that are used more often in surgery:
Unleash tongue man possible
opiates, tranquilizers, stimulants
. At home can be resorted to more humane means)). It may be
Alcohol in certain doses
. Unfortunately, more than achieving the truth from a person at home simply - it will not work.
Do you know the answer?
For centuries, some people came up with ways to achieve the "ideal" deception, while others - to recognize even the slightest false. In the east, in deep antiquity, they noted that in the period of strong fear of the mouth, saliva ceases, and rice flour was invested in the mouth of the suspect. If after a certain time it turned out to be dry, then the suspect was considered guilty. Spartan boys, before getting into special schools, passed a certain selection. The young man was put on a cliff over the cliff and asked if he was afraid. The answer has always been negative. But the truth or lies were determined by the color of the face. If the young man was pale, he lied, he was dumped from the rocks. In ancient Rome, the bodyguards were taken by the same method. The candidate asked provocative issues. If he blinked, he was taken to guard him. It was believed that if a person bluses with provocative issues to him, he will not participate in conspiracies. Now science offers other, more humane and accurate methods for removing clean water.
Polygraph (Lie Detector)
Polygraph, most often it is called a lie detector - this is a machine that is used to test the physiological responses of a person for certain issues. Despite its spoken name, the detector does not detect a lie. Most of the polygraph inspectors will say that they are not tested for lies, but on deceptive reactions. Polygraphy measures sweating, pulse frequency and other physiological factors of a person who is being checked. Tests on the lie detector are accurate when measuring the fact that they should detect in these indicators - nervous excitement. When a person passes the test, it is attached from four to six sensors that remove the specified parameters. The test administrator begins with the fact that he sets two types of test questions: those on which this person should answer truthfully, and those on which he is advised. When moving to more important issues, the administrator will be able to navigate the absolute indicators and truths, and lies.
But the detector lies have a big drawback - people can respond more excitedly, even if they are truthfully answered questions. If the control questions do not exactly show how a person reacts when lies, the administrator is harder to finally decide whether the verifiable is struck. Although the polygraph can be effective in measuring the physiological factors associated with the nervous voltage, it is not always able to distinguish the truth from lies.
Knowing that you can manipulate the test results on the detector, makes a polygraph as a device for determining lies rather unreliable. In addition, it measures the physiological factors that are associated not only with a lie, but also with nervousness is the usual feeling that may occur during interrogation. That is why in recent years, police officers have abandoned to fully rely on such tests as the final evidence of innocence or human guilt. In general, it is important to take into account the likelihood of error when checking the results on the lie detector, but it is possible to see the checked in deception on the basis of the sample of indicators for a number of issues.
How to deceive lies detector
The Internet is full of tips on how to get a test on a lie detector, but many of these ideas are not very effective. For example, biting language or lining acute items in shoes, according to specialists, will not lead to anything.
If you want to pass the test, it is best to stay upset, frightened and confused throughout the test. It makes sense to remember his ridiculous cases from life or solve complex mathematical tasks in the head - all that is able to keep consciousness in a constant state of excitation and stress.
Try to answer only "yes" or "no." Do not explain the answers, do not specify the details and not give any explanations. If you are asked to answer more expanded, it is better to ask a counter question: "What else do you want me to say?" Or emphasize: "In fact, nothing to say about it."
If you are accused of lies, do not give in to the provocation. The prosecution can be used as fuel to feel frustrated and confused. In fact, an honest answer to the diagnostic issues can give an examiner conflicting results, so be prepared for further interrogation.
Researchers from the University of Florida conducted an experiment, which proved that an online detector may appear in the future. Artificial intelligence is capable of 85% of cases to distinguish the truth from lies, having only text tips in its arsenal. Neuralette can recognize key features of the behavior of liars who seek to respond quickly, while using the words "never" and "always."
The term "serum truth" is applicable to a number of psychotropic drugs, which, according to their manufacturers, make a person unable to lie. Yes, such changing drug consciousness exist, but their action does not fully suppress the will of the subject.
Skopolamine was first nominated as a "serum truth" by Dr. Robert House at the beginning of the twentieth century. He became the first drug that received such a conditional name. In the 20s of the 20s, police department in the United States used him for suspects, and in some cases the judges admitted readings that were obtained using this drug. Skopolamine was the preferred Trend Serum preparation for many at the time, because he also washed the memory of the subject. After waking, people did not remember anything about what they said at the interrogation.
The drug comes from plant seeds, which local residents call the "drunken tree." Subsequently, the Nazis used him in interrogations, and today the substance is used in many drugs that prevent ransacms and tremor during Parkinson's disease.
Durma Yellow - the plant of the Solanacea family, from whose seeds from scopolamine
Some "serum truth", such as sodium thiopental, slow down the speed with which the body sends messages from the spinal cord to the head. The body is more difficult to perform high-function tasks: the concentration of attention on one exercise, walking in direct or even lying. The same thing happens when a person, falling asleep in an inconvenient position, reaches the borderline state between consciousness and sleep.
The amital sodium refers to the type of barbiturates or depressants. It was widely used during World War II as a sedative for contused soldiers. But, like all truthful serum drugs, the sodium amital is a powerful sedative, and this side effect in combination with a violation of coordination and cognitive functions, which he calls, served as a reason for refusing its further use of soldiers.
Tiopental sodium is also used to bring due to sentence about the death penalty
In addition, the excessive use of the amitala causes a major dependence. This drug is sometimes used to treat insomnia and is often introduced intravenously, although it can flow as a powder for oral administration. Amitala has a fatal dose - for an adult, it is only 1 g.
This drug is no longer used as a "serum of truth," because the subjects sometimes there are false memories after the sighted fact.
The best way to find out whether the "serum is truth" works - to experience it on himself, which made a television journalist Michael Mosley.
For the study of Tiopental sodium, one of the most popular serum preparations, a journalist accepted two different doses of the drug. After the introduction of the first dose, the doctor asked Mosley than he earns a living, and through the attacks of the hysterical laughter Mosley managed to lie, saying that he was a world-famous cardiac surgeon.
Less than a minute after the introduction of the drug Mosley felt the feeling, according to him, akin to the drinking glass of champagne.
After the second, more dose of Tiopental sodium, a man experienced something that did not expect. When the doctor asked him than he earns a living, he immediately replied:
"I am a television producer. Well, executive producer, well, in general, journalist. "
Later, Mosley explained: when they asked the question, he did not even occur to him.
One of the latest drugs investigated on its ability to obtain truthful data is oxytocin. In 2005, two researchers from the University of Zurich examined the effect of the drug to raise confidence, making injections to the control group out of 130 college students, some of which were given a dose of oxytocin, and the other placebo.
Students asked to play a situational game in which they had to trust a stranger, give him money and be confident in getting part of their winnings. Some people who took oxytocin were more trusted and on average transferred more money. More importantly, 45% of students who took oxytocin transferred all their money, demonstrating the maximum trust, twice as many than those who took placebo.
If you are not a pathological liar, then you are probably more difficult to lie than tell the truth. Mark Twain wrote: "If you tell the truth, you do not need to remember anything."
At the same time, there is no way to be confident by 100%, says the dose of substance the truth or is still able to resist his action. Numerous experiments and scientific reports indicate that the tests are more inclined to speak truth under the influence of serum, but all these drugs have other side effects that can simply speak absurd information.
One of the biggest problems using the "serum truth" for interrogation is a warm, friendly feeling that it imposes a subject towards the opponent. In combination with the state of a serious disorientation, this may lead to the fact that the subject will tell what, in his opinion, the other party wants to hear what may not be true.
This partially explains why any statement made under the influence of the drug "Serum of Truth" is unacceptable in the US courts for more than 50 years. In 1963, the US Supreme Court decided: the confessions made under its influence, "unconstitutionally forced", which threatens the rights of citizens in accordance with the fifth amendment.
The US Department of Internal Security and the Canadian authorities and the European Union are experiencing a system called Avatar developed by researchers from the University of San Diego and the University of Arizona. It is programmed to set various questions through an interactive video terminal on border crossings. While the subject responds to standard questions about the presence of weapons in baggage or transported products, its speech is checked for accuracy on objective signs of lies recognition. Suspicious travelers will send to additional checks with real employees.
"The system can detect changes in the eyes, voice, gestures and position to determine the potential risk," says Aaron Elkins, Associate Professor of the Department of Management Information Systems in San Diego. "He can even say whether you press your fingers."
Most recently, Elkins told CNBC that the accuracy of the system varies from 60 to 75%, with a maximum indicator of 80%. Although these figures may not seem as high as high, they are still better than people who, even with the presence of the necessary skills, correctly evaluate the truthfulness in 54-60% of cases.
- Avatar, which means "Automatic Virtual Agent for Evaluation of Truth In Real Time" - not the only digital lies detection system.
- Converus from Legia, Utah, last month announced that its Eyedetect system, which conducts a 30-minute accuracy test, based on the computer's computer observations, will be adopted as a permissible evidence in New Mexico Court. The defendant in the case was recognized by the "credible" by the system and asked the court to allow testing as evidence.
- Unlike a polygraph, Eyedtect extremely quickly processes information and for the most part autonomy. It helps to avoid one of the polygraph traps: examiner people who can be subjective when interpreting tests. According to Walters, nothing can affect the results of Eyedetect, it reads emotional excitement, which manifests itself in the characteristic movements of the eyes and behavior when a person is lying. In addition, the test takes no more than 30 minutes, unlike a two-four-hour test on a polygraph. Eyedetect is more comfortable for the subject. "When I was connected to a polygraph, I was scary enough," Walters notes. "You just sit and look at the car."
- Converus argues that Eyedetect is "the most accurate of the affordable lies' detectors", reaching 86%. For comparison, many scientists believe that the detector tests have accuracy from 65 to 75%. The company has already received orders from 500 customers from 40 countries that are mainly going to use Eyedetect to check in workplaces. According to the official information of Converus, it is ready to use the Federal Government in the United States, as well as 21 state and local law enforcement agencies. Wired reported that the State Department had recently paid the company $ 25,000 for using Eyedetect when checking local employees at the US Embassy in Guatemala. This technology was also used with an internal investigation at the US Embassy in Paraguay.
The age of technology brought a new round in the development of lies recognition methods. Of course, they will be extremely helpful to investigate crimes, identify unfair employees in companies and with interviews for responsible positions. But what if people decide to check their relatives and loved ones in case of occurrence, seemingly insignificant discrepancies in facts? Will we do not believe and trust others? Let's hope that there is no.
Penotal is a drug used for non-evaging anesthesia of the ultra-screwing scheme. The tool has several pharmacological titles - Tiopental sodium, Trapanal sodium. In the Russian Federation, it refers to the list of poisonous and potent substances, the turnover of which is controlled at the state level.
The drug is called "serum truth", the drug has its own history and special characteristics. In addition to medical benefits, it can bring harm to health, up to a deadly outcome, if you break the algorithm for its application.
Tiopental sodium in Latin sounds like Thiopentalum-Natrium. The structure of the ingredients included in the composition is the following list:
- Tobarbituric acid with anhydrous sodium carbonate.
- Falling doses are used to kill animals and to enforce the death penalty in the form of injection (USA).
- The chemical formula is C11H17N2NAOO2S, the appearance of the mixture is a crystalline white powder, it is slightly dissolved in water, but it dissolves well in ethanol.
- The history of the appearance of a substance
- "Serum of Truth" Scientists, military and law enforcement specialists were looking for in ancient times. The first experience belonging to the means created by the chemical way refers to 1916. A doctor from America applied scolepamin to force people to tell the truth. Then, in the forties, they drew attention to the narcotic substance, obtained from the cactus, it was called Mescalin, and his propagandist was Mexican Carlos Castaneda. After studying, the tool was recommended for use as a "serum truth" by the US intelligence services.
- Penotal sodium in this capacity was first applied by Dr. from the UK by Roster Lewis in 1953. He introduced the drug to the criminal, but he did not confess the murder. Lewis hid in failure, writing about the recognition of the killer under the action of the means. Then there were several more attempts that brought very dubious results.
In wartime, Pontal Sodium found an application as anesthetic and medicine against psychological stresses. In the post-war period, the therapeutic use of the substance comes to no. But experiments on it continued, including in the USSR. Today, only amateurs believe that Penotal is "serum truth," but it has nothing to do with the truth.
Medical Application Penotal sodium has a property of slowing down the activity of the TSS neurons. The result of the use of therapeutic doses of the drug is drowsiness. If the amount of medication exceeds, there are hazardous consequences. Apply the drug under the following procedures and states:
anesthesia with short-term surgical operations;
as an introductory and basic anesthesia with the further use of other painkillers and antispasmodics;
- with epilepsy;
- with an increase in intracranial pressure;
- to prevent brain hypoxia;
- In psychiatry with the aim of conducting anesthesia and drug addicts.
- Independent treatment with the drug is not recommended, due to its strong action and danger in non-compliance with dosages.
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Signs of consumption of pentatola
In violation of the reception mode, a person develops negative symptoms from physical and mental well-being:
oppression of respiratory functions;
- Muscular convulsions and syndrome "Troubles";
- dizziness and inhibition;
- drowsiness and apnea;
- confusion of thoughts and illogy of actions;
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract - a stool impairment, a decrease in appetite, nausea attacks, vomiting;
Skin rash, redness, itching and other allergic manifestations.
It is difficult to identify a person who abuses the so-called "serum of truth", since the picture of signs is similar to those that happen with other types of opioid drug addiction. This can only be done by a specialist.
Influence on the body
Penotal under the admission of superhetephoric doses has a destructive effect on health. The scheme of negative changes is extensive - from reducing pressure to violation of cardiac activity and collapse.
A person is having difficulty in respiration associated with spasms in respiratory organs and hypoventilation of lungs.
The heartbeat becomes unstable, there is a tachycardia, alternating with arrhythmia.
- Sleepiness and inhibition, hallucinations, development of psychosis.
- The gastrointestinal bodies begin to work in emergency mode, pain in abdominal and vomiting, increased salivation appear.
- Allergic reactions occur on the skin of the skin, an anaphylactic shock is possible in rare cases.
- Outdoor manifestations may be spasm of vessels and thrombosis at the injection site, the defeat of nerve endings and tissue necrosis in the zone of injections.
Tiopental sodium should not be used with home treatment, even if you need to sleep and remove tension and stress. The drug is dangerous in what causes dependence. The speed of its formation depends on the individual qualities of the body, no one is guaranteed from the development of addiction, so it is better to use more secure funds.
Elderly, this medicine is not recommended, such is the WHO solution, since people with age decreases the opposition to the potent substances. The abolition of the drug with a prescribed doctor therapy should be gradually with a quantitative decrease in the medication. Such a scheme is due to the fact that the cessation of the use of the means causes the abolition syndrome, and the person suffers until a new dose takes.